It is considered that smile aesthetics plays a very important role in facial attractiveness, a feature with great impact on psychological well-being, self-perception as well as social behavior and interaction. Orthodontics is one of the dental specialties balancing position, shape and function of teeth and dental arches in order to establish a functioning and aesthetic dentition while also designing an attractive smile. The outcome of orthodontic therapy is influenced by a multitude of dental and soft tissue related factors as well as jaw relative positioning. Individual characteristics are also to be considered by orthodontists in achieving their treatment goals, as perception of aesthetics and attractiveness in a subjective matter. The purpose of the presentation is to emphasize the importance of perception and self-perception on various aspects of the smile and on orthodontic therapy, the outcome of the orthodontic treatment not only being dependent on theoretical concepts and professional skills but also on patient self-perception, acceptance of treatment plan and compliance throughout the various phases of the treatment.