The accurate endodontic approach involves the knowledge and successive application of all stages, from diagnosis to compliance with the objectives, purposes, clinical procedures and all the defining aspects to endodontic treatment. The shaping of root canals is an essential element, governed by principles and criteria that have allowed the introduction, expansion and diversification of new materials and methods. The emergence and evolution of different types of nickel-titanium alloys, rotary instrumentation techniques and means of assisted endodontic irrigation marked the transition to a new era in the context of contemporary endodontic treatment. From this viewpoint, rotary instrumentation is characterized by a continuous evolution, focused on three main directions: the type of nickel-titanium alloy, the technical characteristics of files active part and the kind of rotational movement transmitted to the instrument. This implementation of new concepts and therapeutic methods, made against the background of the complexity of the endodontic system, allows building a future of root canal shaping focused on three essential aspects - safety, efficacy and simplicity.